Losing too much body heat is a serious problem called hypothermia (hi-po-ther-mee-uh).
Protect people with with dementia from hypothermia during those months when it's cold outside. Check out these tips on how to stay safe. Share it with your family and friends.
What is hypothermia?Hypothermia is what happens when your body temperature gets very low. For an older person, a body temperature colder than 95 degrees can cause many health problems, such as a heart attack, kidney problems, liver damage, or worse.
Being outside in the cold, or even being in a very cold house, can lead to hypothermia. You can take steps to lower your chance of getting hypothermia.
Vermont winters can be very cold. Last December I wanted to save some money so I turned my heat down to 62 degrees.
I didn't know that would put my health in danger. Luckily, my son Tyler came by to check on me. He saw that I was only wearing a light shirt and that my house was cold.
Ty said I was speaking slowly, shivering, and having trouble walking. He wrapped me in a blanket and called 911. Turns out I had hypothermia. My son's quick thinking saved my life. Now on cold days, I keep my heat at least at 68 degrees and wear a sweater in the house.
Keep warm insideLiving in a cold house, apartment, or other building can cause hypothermia. People who are sick may have special problems keeping warm. Do not let it get too cold inside and dress warmly.
9 Tips for keeping warm inside:
- Set your heat at 68 degrees or higher.
- To save on heating bills, close off rooms you are not using.
- To keep warm at home, wear long johns under your clothes.
- Throw a blanket over your legs.
- Wear socks and slippers.
- When you go to sleep, wear long johns under your pajamas, and use extra covers.
- Wear a cap or hat.
- Ask family or friends to check on you during cold weather.
- Bundle up on windy, cool days
Stay warm outsideA heavy wind can quickly lower your body temperature. Check the weather forecast for windy and cold days. On those days, try to stay inside or in a warm place. If you have to go out, wear warm clothes.
Tips for bundling up:
- Dress for the weather if you have to go out on chilly, cold, or damp days.
- Wear loose layers of clothing. The air between the layers helps to keep you warm.
- Put on a hat and scarf. You lose a lot of body heat when your head and neck are uncovered.
- Wear a waterproof coat or jacket if it's snowy.
Ask Your DoctorTalk with your doctor about how to stay safe in cold weather. Some illnesses may make it harder for your body to stay warm. Taking some medicines and not being active also can affect body heat. Your doctor can help you find ways to prevent hypothermia.
Tips for talking with your doctor about hypothermia:
- Ask your doctor about signs of hypothermia.
- Talk to your doctor about any health problems (such as diabetes) and medicines that can make hypothermia a special problem for you.
- Ask about safe ways to stay active even when it's cold outside.
Warning signs of hypothermiaSometimes it is hard to tell if a person has hypothermia. Look for clues.
- Is the house very cold?
- Is the person not dressed for cold weather?
- Is the person speaking slower than normal?
- Is the person having trouble keeping his or her balance?
Early signs of hypothermia:
- cold feet and hands
- puffy or swolen face
- pale skin
- slower than normal speech or slurring of words
- acting sleepy
- being angry or confused
Later signs of hypothermia:
- moving slowly, trouble walking, or being clumsy
- stiff and jerky arm or leg movements
- slow heartbeat
- slow, shallow breathing
- blacking out or losing consciousness
Calling 911Call 911 right away if you think someone has warning signs of hypothermia.
Tips for what to do after you call 911
- Wrap the person in a warm blanket.
- Do not rub the person's legs or arms.
- Do not try to warm the person in a bath.
- Do not use a heating pad.
FAQsYour questions answered:
Q. What health problems can make it hard for my body to stay warm?
A. Diabetes, thyroid problems, Parkinson's disease, and arthritis are common problems for older people. These health concerns can make it harder for your body to stay warm. Talk to your doctor about your health problems and hypothermia. Your doctor can tell you how to stay warm even when it's cold outside.
Q. Can medicines lower my body's temperature?
A. Yes. Some medicines used by older people can make it easy to get hypothermia. These include medicines you get
from your doctor and those you buy over-the-counter. Talk to your doctor before you stop taking any medicine.
Q. What can I do to stay warm at home?
A. Try closing off any room you are not using. Also:
- Close the vents and shut the doors in these rooms.
- Place a rolled towel in front of all doors to keep out drafts.
- Make sure your house isn't losing heat through windows.
- Keep your blinds and curtains closed.
- If you have gaps around the windows, try using weather stripping or caulk to keep the cold air out.
- And, it helps to wear warm clothes during the day and use extra blankets at night.
A. You may be able to get help paying your heating bill. You can call the National Energy Assistance Referral service at 1-866-674-6327 to get information about the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program. It's a free call. If you have a computer with internet, you can also email them at:
Summary — What you can do about hypothermia
- Set your heat at 68 degrees or higher.
- Dress warmly on cold days even if you are staying in the house.
- Wear loose layers when you go outside on chilly days.
- Wear a hat, scarf, and gloves.
- Don't stay out in the cold and wind for a long time.
- Talk to your doctor about health problems that may make it harder for you to keep warm.
- Find safe ways to stay active even when it's cold outside.
- Ask a neighbor or friend to check on you if you live alone.
- If you think someone has hypothermia:
- Call 911 right away.
- Cover him or her with a blanket.
- Don't rub his or her legs or arms.
Where to find more informationFor information about help in your area, check with your local Area Agency on Aging. Look in your phone book or contact:
Phone: 1-800-677-1116 (toll-free)
For help with heating bills, contact the National Energy Assistance Referral service about the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program:
National Energy Assistance Referral Hotline
Phone: 1-866-674-6327 (toll-free)
TTY: 1-866-367-6228 (toll-free)
For more about health and aging, contact:
National Institute on Aging Information Center
P.O. Box 8057
Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8057
Phone: 1-800-222-2225 (toll-free)
TTY: 1-800-222-4225 (toll-free)
Spanish website: www.nia.nih.gov/Espanol
Visit NIHSeniorHealth.gov (www.nihseniorhealth.gov), a senior-friendly website from the National Institute on Aging and the National Library of Medicine. This website has health and wellness information for older adults. Special features make it simple to use.
Share this with friends and family so they can learn the signs of hypothermia and how to prevent it.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
- National Institutes of Health
- National Institute on Aging